Ägypten: Der kalte Militärputsch?

Ägypten: Der kalte Militärputsch?

Die blutige Repression der ägyptischen Kopten erscheint als religiöser Konflikt.In Wahrheit aber scheint es sich um einen vom Militär geschürten Konflikt zu handeln, der den Demokratisierungsprozess beenden soll und die Transformationsperiode bis zu den Wahlen eines neuen Präsidenten durch ein Notstandsgesetz ausser kraft setzen soll.Die Ereignisse hatten ein längeres Vorspiel. Noch Anfang Oktober wurde der Text des Abkommen des Militärrats mit den ägyptischen Parteienvertreter euphorisch veröffentlicht:

Egypt: Text of the Latest Agreement between SCAF and Party Leaders  

Sunday, 02 October 2011 11:56


Chief of staff of the Armed Forces Sami Anan and other military officials met Saturday with the heads of some political parties and movements to discuss the current situation on the political scene including the transition of power, the parliamentary electoral law, the emergency law, and the demand for a decree to isolate remnants from the former regime from surfacing onto the political landscape.

The meeting ended with the following agreements between both sides:
1: The newly elected parliament will convene in the second half of January 2012, while the Shura council will begin its first session following the elections on March 24. A meeting will take place where both elected candidates from the upper and lower house will be present no later than the first week of April 2012 to choose an elected panel to draft the new constitution according to the general principles endorsed by parties. Doors will be then open for the registering of presidential candidates in the next day after approving the new constitution.
2: Amendments to article 5 of the parliamentary electoral law were made allowing both independents and members of political parties to run for individual seats.
3: The annulling of the emergency law except in special cases will be looked into, in addition to contemplating the isolating of remnants from the former regime from political participation.
4: The end of referring citizens to military tribunals except in crimes stipulated by military law.
5: The issuance of a law pertaining to electoral crimes stipulated in the political rights law.
6: The commitment of all political factions in cooperating to ensure safety and security during the elections away from corruption.
7: Domestic and foreign civil organizations to monitor the elections according to the decisions made by the supreme electoral committee.
8: Consensus between political parties and factions regarding the panel to be chosen to draft the country’s new constitution, and agreement on a set of principles to be adopted by all the signatory parties when drafting the new constitution, and those principles are to be considered an informal code of ethics endorsed by the parties.
The political leaders below who have signed the document have declared their full support of SCAF’s decisions and appreciate the efforts made by the military for a safe and sound transition of power.

Al-Wafd Party: Dr. Sayed Badawy
Freedom and Justice Party: Dr. Mohamed Morsi
Democratic Front Party: Al Saeed Kamel
Reform and Development Party: Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat and Ramy Lakah
The Egyptian Social Democratic Party: Dr. Mohamed Abu Alghar
Modern Egypt Party: Dr. Nabil Debes
Al Nour Party: Emad Abdul Ghafour
Al Karama Party: Eng. Mohamed Sammy
The Democratic Nasserist Party: Dr. Mohamed Abu Al Ela
The Ghad Party: Mousa Mustafa Mousa
The Justice Party: Dr. Mustafa Al Nagar
The Free Egyptians Party: Dr. Ahmed Saeed
The Justice and Equality Party: Eng. Ali Freeg


Doch schon Tage später beschwerte sich die Muslimbruderschaft offen darüber, dass das Militär sich nicht an die Vereinbarungen hielt, sich in die Politik einmische und die Übergangsperiode ausweiten wollte. So heist es auf der Webseite der Muslimbrüder:

MB Accuses SCAF of Delving Into Polilitcs By Extending Transition Period

Thursday, 06 October 2011 06:28


Muslim Brotherhood And Recent Events

On the 1st of October 2011,several members of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) met with a number of party leaders, and agreed on several points, which sparked wide controversy throughout Egyptian society. We, therefore, feel it is important that we clarify our position.

1. The meeting with SCAF resulted in the establishment of a timeframe for the holding of parliamentary elections (People’s Assembly and Shura Council), which ends after the two houses convene in April 2012. This will be followed by the selection of members of the Constituent Assembly charged with preparing a new constitution for the country. The process of preparing the constitution is to take six months. A referendum will be held on the new constitution fifteen days after it’s been drafted. Two months later, the President of the Republic will be elected. All this contradicts announcements made by the military from the outset when it first took power. At the time, it declared that the transitional period will not exceed six months. This was then extended so it would end with the presidential election, before the end of 2011. SCAF statement number 28 announced:

“The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces stresses that  there is no truth to the news reported and circulated by the media about postponing the presidential elections to 2012. SCAF also affirms that the armed forces wishes to end its mission as soon as possible and to hand over power to a civil authority that will be elected by this great nation”.

The agreement that resulted from SCAF’s meeting with party leaders means that SCAF’s statement 28, released on March, 28 2011 was entirely tossed overboard, and that the presidential elections, at best, will be completed towards the end of 2012, and may even later in mid-2013.

This warns of great dangers resulting from the extended transitional period with its turbulent and tumultuous events, with public fear and confusion, with tremendous negative impact on security, investment and production, and the immersion of the military into political strife, while distracting SCAF from its crucial core mission at a time when ominous warnings loom on the horizon. This also delays the transfer of power to the people – the source of authority and sovereignty.

The Muslim Brotherhood rejects this in its entirety, and insists on the completion of the elections as soon as possible, and on holding the presidential elections immediately following the formation of parliament, without waiting for drafting of the Constitution. This is the lesser of two evils, because the people will not accept this extended delay and procrastination.

2. It was also agreed that a legislation is to be considered to bar some of the leaders of the dissolved National Democractic Party from exercising political rights. In fact, both SCAF and the interim government declared many times already that they would do just that, and then began stalling. Meanwhile, the majority of the people demand that those who corrupted political life, caused great harm and suffering to the people and betrayed public trust must lose their political rights – all of them, not just some as stated in the recent agreement. The military and the interim government must listen and respond positively to what the people want. They should not just say: we’ll «consider legislation». It is absurd that the people expel those criminals out of the door, only to find others letting them in through the window. Indeed, SCAF and the government must stick to their word in order to preserve public trust.

3. Senior jurists have concluded that the state of emergency has ended based on the provisions of Article 59 of the Constitutional Declaration; and the popular will to end it is firm and persistent. Emergency rule lasted three decades, mostly without justification. The military must not insist on imposing it any longer, far less expands its range, especially as SCAF announced in February 2011 that it will be lifted at the earliest opportunity and, at worst, before the start of the elections. Now, here we are on the eve of the elections and members of SCAF assert its imposition until May 2012, in violation of the Constitutional Declaration and the promises they made, and against the will of the majority of the people.

4. As for Constitutional Guidelines, we have said repeatedly that we are against all so-called Supra-Constitutional Principles and the so-called Inviolable Constitutional Principles and against the imposition of any specific formation of the Constituent Assembly that will draft the new Constitution not chosen by the People’s Assembly and Shura Council, and against the army playing a role in political life, since that is what corrupts the political life and distracts the army from its real role and mission.

5. Our position as regards SCAF is only based on its position on the issues affecting the nation; we support it when it’s righteous, and advise it when it’s not. The Muslim Brotherhood measure attitudes on the basis of guiding principles; and never lend support unconditionally, and never oppose anyone at all times.

Finally, we find that the solution to the current impasse, which we and the whole country have to face, lies in the speedy fulfilment of promises and declarations, in respecting the Constitution and the will of the people, and the rapid transfer of power from the military to an elected civilian authority as soon as possible for fear that things go wrong and the country descends into further turmoil with dire consequences.

The Muslim Brotherhood

Cairo: 7 of Dhul-Qida 1432AH, 5th of October 2011


Es gab auch weitere Anzeichen, dass das Militär nur einen Vorwand suchte,um seine Macht auszudehnen:

„In der vergangenen Woche hatten mehrere Entscheidungen das Misstrauen gegenüber den Militärs in der Bevölkerung erneut wachsen lassen:

  • So entschied ein Gericht, dass Zivilisten weiterhin in Schnellverfahren von Militärgerichtshöfen abgeurteilt werden können, wenn sie Soldaten oder militärische Einrichtungen angreifen. Damit hat der Rat einer der Hauptforderungen der ägyptischen Demokratie-Bewegung eine Absage erteilt, die die Abschaffung dieser Rechtsprechung verlangt. De facto macht die ab sofort gültige neue Regelung jeden Teilnehmer einer Demonstration, die von Soldaten eskortiert wird, zum Kandidaten für ein Schnellverfahren. Menschenrechtsgruppen in Ägypten schätzen, dass seit Mubaraks Abdankung im Februar etwa 11.000 Ägyptern vom Militär der Prozess gemacht wurde.
  • Am Sonntag entschied der Armeerat, beim Wahlkampf für die Ende November beginnenden Parlamentswahlen dürften keine religiösen Slogans verwendet werden. Die Regelung ist ein offener Schlag gegen die größten Rivalen des politischen Establishments, die Muslimbrüder. Deren Wahlspruch lautet „Islam ist die Lösung“.
  • Ein zu Beginn der Woche vom Rat veröffentlichter Zeitplan hat die Wahl eines neuen Präsidenten für Ägypten in weite Ferne gerückt. Erst nach der Veröffentlichung der Ergebnisse der – sich über Monate erstreckenden – Parlamentswahlen soll eine Verfassung geschrieben, erst wenn diese fertig ist, ein Präsident gewählt werden. Kritiker befürchten, dass der Rat sich so mindestens bis 2013, vielleicht sogar bis zu zwei Jahre ohne Wahlen an der Macht halten will.
  • http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,791000,00.html


Wichtig ist, dass die christlichen Kopten bei ihrer Demonstration Forderungen nach dem Rücktritt des Militärratschefs Tantawi stellten und das Militär wiederum im Staatsfernsehen die muslimische Bevölkerung dazu aufrief,das ägyptische Militär von der den christlichen Kopten zu schützen. Hier wird schon deutlich, dass das Militär klar versuchte hier einen politischen Konflikt in einen religiösen umzulenken.

Doch seit den euphorischen Tagen nach der Abdankung Mubaraks, als sich Zivilisten und Soldaten feiernd in den Armen lagen, haben sich tiefe Risse aufgetan zwischen Volk und Militär. Längst kommt es vielen so vor, als hätten sich die Militärs der Revolution bloß bedient, um sich elegant an die Macht zu putschen. Und so war der Christen-Protest am Sonntag nicht nur religiös, sondern auch politisch motiviert: „Das Volk will den Rücktritt des Feldmarschalls!“, riefen die Demonstranten in Anspielung an den Führer des Militärrats Mohammed Hussein Tantawi. In ihren Augen hat die Militärregierung zunehmend die Züge einer Junta.Das Militär antwortete mit brutaler Gewalt und hetzte neben seinen Uniformierten auch linientreue Schlägertrupps gegen die Christen und ihre Unterstützer. Das berichten westliche Reporter vor Ort. Damit hat sich die Armee Methoden zu Eigen gemacht, die man am Nil bislang nur von der Polizei kannte.“Was heute passiert ist, hat es in Ägypten noch nie gegeben“, twitterte der Menschenrechtler Hossam Baghat aus einem Krankenhaus. „Ich habe Leichen ohne Hände und ohne Beine gesehen.“ Auch der ägyptische Blogger Issander al-Amrani glaubt, dass eine rote Linie überschritten worden sei. Es sei das erste Mal gewesen, dass das Militär dermaßen aggressiv gegen einen Protest vorgegangen sei, schreibt er.Kritiker der Übergangsregierung sehen die Eskalation der Gewalt als symptomatisch an. Die Militärregierung wende bei ihrem Versuch, die Demokratisierung Ägyptens zu verzögern, immer autoritärere Methoden an, beklagen Aktivisten wie al-Amrani. So hätte der Militärrat nicht nur die Live-Übertragung der Unruhen am Sonntag unterbrechen lassen, auch habe er das staatliche Fernsehen genutzt, um muslimische Ägypter aufzurufen, die Armee vor den Kopten zu beschützen.

Die Muslimbruderschaft wiederum forderte nun in einem Appell , dass der Zeitplan für die Wahlen eingehalten werden soll, fordert eine unabhängige Untersuchung der Vorgänge, gesteht Ungerechtigkleiten gegenüber den Kopten zu, ermahnt diese  aber gleichzeitig nicht den ausländischen Feinden Ägyptens in die Hand zu spielen und zitiert am Ende noch den Chef des israelischen Geheimdienstes, um zu zeigen, dass Israel hinter den Unruhen steht. Das Militär wird wohlweislich von Kritik ausgenommen und die nationale Einheit betont angesichts der inneren Unruhen, die ausländischen Kräften in die Schuhe geschoben wird:

  • An Appeal by the Muslim Brotherhood to all Egyptians
  • Monday, 10 October 2011 17:29
  • IkhwanWeb
  • Does what happened last night around Maspero make sense? especially amongst those who were taking turns to pray every Friday in Tahrir Square, with Christians pouring water for fellow Muslims to wash, those who belong to two religions calling for love, peace, kindness and fairness? And all supposedly because of a small incident in the far south of the country? That could have easily been resolved amicably – the judiciary could look into relevant documents: if a proper license was obtained, a church is to be built without further delay; but if not, everyone must respect the law and the final decision of the judge.
    • Needless to say, the number of dead and wounded and the extent of the destruction all prove that these events are not merely the result of the Edfu, Aswan Church, but the work of domestic and foreign hands endeavouring to abort the revolution and disrupt the march towards freedom, justice and democracy, even if that leads to civil war between brothers who share and have always shared homeland, blood and history, as some declared openly.
    • Legitimate demands can be dealt with through proper channels, in appropriate ways and at the right time. All the Egyptian people have grievances and legitimate demands, not only our Christian brothers. Certainly, this is not the right time to claim them. The current government is only transitional, and the general conditions of our country are uniquely chaotic and confused. Even if decrees are issued to pass new laws, they would be reviewed following the formation of the elected parliament. Wisdom dictates patience and prudence: wait for a government elected by the people, which derives its legitimacy from the public, is loyal to the masses, and endeavours to meet their fair and legitimate demands, especially on the eve of free elections that we have always sought, and should make them happen without delay. That would help get the country to a state of stability and legitimacy, popular constitutionalism and the establishment of a sound democratic life.
    • We are aware that there is a lot of anger and frustration amongst our fellow Christians as a result of perceived injustice and marginalization. This injustice was committed by a corrupt despot who did not respect religion and betrayed the trust of the people. This injustice was inflicted upon all the Egyptian people. It is no secret that the Muslim Brotherhood were subjected to many times the suffering and injustice inflicted upon others. It is not right, nor is it the right time to seek retribution and vent anger now at this critical period in Egypt’s history, not on the current transitional government which is not responsible for whatever happened in the past.
      We have this to say:
      – We call upon all fair-minded people to intervene and extinguish the flames of anger and rekindle the spirit of brotherhood which originally accompanied the revolution of January 25, and seek the return of essential cohesion to the fabric of this one nation which highlights the greatness of the Egyptian people throughout history.
    • – We call for immediate investigations into what happened, and for the results to be announced with the utmost transparency. We call for the upholding of the rule of law over all persons and all considerations, so all those found guilty should receive proper punishment.
      – We call upon our Christian brothers not to give the opportunity to the enemies of the nation at home and abroad to stir up discord and unrest.
      – We call for elections to be held according to a schedule agreed upon by the appropriate national forces, in order to accelerate the transfer of power and responsibility and the return of stability with all the positive benefits this means for the whole country.
      – We call upon the media to fear God in their outlook on the people and the country, and to seek credibility, honesty and transparency and accuracy in what they publish, report and circulate.
      – We demand that a law is passed quickly to impose a political ban on everyone who is found guilty of corrupting political life, in order to save the country from thuggery and chaos, especially during the elections.
      – We call upon the armed forces and the security forces to spare no effort in protecting the electoral process. The Muslim Brotherhood is willing to help with popular committees in order to achieve this noble national goal.
      Finally, we remind those who have already forgotten what General Amos Yadlin, former Director of Israeli Military Intelligence, said and published in newspapers on 2/November/2010, before the revolution: “Egypt represents the biggest playing field for Israeli military intelligence activity. This activity has developed according to plan since 1979. We have penetrated Egypt in many areas, including the political, security, economic, and military spheres. We have succeeded in promoting sectarian and social tension there so as to create a permanent atmosphere of turmoil, in order to deepen the discord between Egyptian society and the government and make it difficult for any regime following that of Hosni Mubarak to alleviate this discord”. Is it time to wake up?May God save Egypt, unite her people and guide her leaders for the good of the country and the people.

      The Muslim Brotherhood

      Cairo: 12 Thul-Qida 1432AH – 10 October 2011.

    • http://www.ikhwanweb.com/iweb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=32515:an-appeal-by-the-muslim-brotherhood-to-all-egyptians&catid=10387:newsflash&Itemid=794

Der Führer der säkularen und demokratischen Ghadpartei, Dr. Aymann Nour verurteilte die Gewalt beider Seiten und fordert, dass man die Unruhen nach Zivilrecht behandle und nicht nach Notstandsgesetzen, das dem Militär alle Macht geben würde.

  • Ghad Party leader, Dr. Ayman Nour described violence in downtown Cairo between Copts and security officers as dangerous and unacceptable.
  • „violence either by protestors or the military must be rejected“, he stressed.
  • In a statement to Ikhwanweb, Nour stressed that Sunday’s clashes should handeled by civil law without turning to more emergency laws.
  • „The problem needs to be wisely and calmly but sternly addressed. The rule of law should be applied, and through legal channels the issue will be solved“, he stressed.
§  http://www.ikhwanweb.com/iweb/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=32508:ghad-party-urges-scaf-not-to-apply-new-emergency-law&catid=10412:egypt&Itemid=692

Es bleibt abzuwarten, ob sich das Militär von diesen Appellen beeindrucken lässt und wie es den Zeitplan für die nächsten Wahlen einhalten wird oder dies als Vorwand für einen kalten Putsch nimmt. Jedenfalls hat das ägyptische Militär klargemacht, dass es bei Rücktrittsforderungen gegen Militärchef Tantawi und/oder gegen Forderungen gegen den Militärrat gewillt ist mit äusserster Brutalität  vorzugehen.

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